Thursday, May 21, 2020
Religion and prayer can benefit students in educational settings by positively contributing to better grades and behavior. Personal faith and prayer are important to people in many walks of life. Some individuals believe that this need for religious stimulation includes the youth in our school systems. There are different reasons why knowledge of religion and prayer can be important to students. For example, if students do not know about diverse faiths, it can be difficult for them to have a well-rounded knowledge and understanding of other cultures. There are oppositional sides to this issue as well. Some people believe that prayer in educational settings could be used as a way to persuade students into believing certain things that theyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some teachers may have a personal bias against certain faiths or religion in general. These problems can be dealt with. According to this article, Ã¢â¬Å"To address the challenge of teaching about religion without pros elytizing, we must explore the assumptions and causes underlying each set of factorsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Passe, J., Willox, L. 2009). We should ask ourselves what lies beneath the problems of teaching religion. We should look to see if prejudice and impartiality are factors motivating against religious teachings. Achieving high grades and doing well in school has previously been attributed to knowledge of Biblical learning. In his article Ã¢â¬Å"The relationship between Biblical literacy, academic achievement, and school behaviorÃ¢â¬ ¦,Ã¢â¬ William Jeynes talks about how a study was completed by 160 students who were grades 7th through 12th. The studentÃ¢â¬â¢s Biblical knowledge was tested. The end results proved to be that the students with the highest level of Biblical knowledge also had the highest grade point averages and portrayed the best behavior of students from both public and Christian schools (p. 102-106). Learning courses specializing in religion can foster open-mindedness, cultural appreciation and improve behavior among students. Students may be more apt to accept differences in people around them, and portray a positive attitude when they have access to learning about diverse religions. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"How teaching world religionsShow MoreRelated No Religion or School Prayer in Public Schools Essay3018 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesConstitution was adopted, the separation of church and state issue focused on preventing a government mandated religion (Davis 245). The framers of the Constitution knew first hand the harmful consequences of a government that has complete control over religion. Protecting the religious freedoms of the various religions seeking refuge in America also raised great concern. Each religion s hould be given the same rights when practicing their beliefs. For these reasons, the First Amendment of hteRead More Religion and School Prayer in Public Schools Essays1853 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespractice the same religion, Americas first legislators made certain that government intervention in religious matters was prohibited. Therefore, religious freedom was ensured in the First Amendment to the Constitution, as it states, Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. . . (Whitehead, Rights 49). This statement allowed Americans to f reely express and practice or chose not to practice a religion. The two distinct partsRead More Religion and Prayer in Public Schools Essay1469 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReligion in Public Schools Ã The practice of religion has been a major factor in American culture for centuries. The religion clause of the First Amendment, which states Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, was developed to preserve the freedom of religion (Haynes 2). The religion clause was designed to protect religion from the control of the government, but, consequently, it restricts the expression of religionRead More Religion and Prayer Must Not be Permitted in Public School Essay1823 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe inability to practice a desired religion or not to practice one at all. Since the newly formed country was made up of people from more than one religious background, the government had to come up with a way to accommodate all of its citizens. Understanding the countrys diversity, the writers of the Constitution of the United States of America included in the First Amendment the words, Congress shall make no law respect ing the establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise therofRead MoreThe Constitutionality of Prayer in Public Schools Essay698 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMany people agree against prayer in public schools, while others think that people should be able to express their religion in their own ways. In public schools, they are not allowed to hold prayers at all during the school day due to the mixed religion students that are attending the school. Over the past few years, this has become an extremely controversial issue in our nation. Many people find it proper to pray in school but many people also agree that it is extremely wrong and that if thereRead MoreThe Issue of School Prayer1009 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe issue of school prayer has been a thorny one in the United States for many years now. In the beginning of the nineteenth century readings of the Bible and prayer were common practices in public schools. However prayer was banned in 1962 due to claims that it was viol ating the First Amendment right that the government was not allowed to support religion, and from then on the Supreme Court has ruled against any and all forms of prayer in schools. Schools cannot however ban students from prayingRead MorePosition Paper1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPosition Paper Introduction Looking back over the past two hundred and seven years, every session of the United States Senate has been opened with a prayer. Doing so has reaffirmed the Senates faith that God is the Sovereign Lord of our Nation. Barry C. Black currently serves as the spiritual advisor and counselor for the United States Senate with the title of Chaplin. Over the years, this position has ranged from part time, to now a full time position (United States Senate, 2011). EverRead MoreRuling Out School Prayer1276 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeople argue that school prayer is needed in schools, but I think that it is not necessary. I believe that it is not necessary to have prayer during school to please people of one religion. If a person can pray to him/herself, then there is no need for a public prayer. It has already been established in the constitution that school prayer has been banned and it should remain that way. In my opinion it should remain unconstitutional because it interferes with other studentÃ¢â¬â¢s religion, the intention forRead MoreEssay on Prayer Should Be Allowed in Public Schools1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPrayer Should Be Allowed in Public Schools School prayer is a very controversial issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. The issue of school prayer is about whether the public school systems should let the students pray, at the start of the school day, as a class. The issue of school prayer began in the late sixteenth century when people in England did not approve of the way one religion was forced upon them, so the Puritans, known as the Pilgrims decided to come to the colonies. Even in the colonies theRead MoreThe Argument Of The First Amendment878 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfreedoms such as freedom of religion, freedom of the press, free expression, freedom of association, and freedom of assembly (Michigan State University)Ã¢â¬ . So with the first amendment preventing against government intrusions on religion could a football coach at a public high school lead the players in prayer before a game? Well the answer is no, it is against the law for schools to sponsor or endorse speech. Therefore a coach is not allowed to engage in a ny activity that the school itself is forbidden from
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction Currently, in the United Kingdom breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and early diagnosis is the key to reducing mortality rates (Skaane et al, 2007). The National Health Service breast screening programme introduced digital mammography as the preferred option due to its increased sensitivity and specificity for denser breasts. Additionally, it has the ability to manipulate the images produced (NHSBSP, 2012). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between target/filter combinations, kilovoltage (kV), radiation dose and image quality using a mammographic phantom which is currently used for the quality assurance programme in the breast imaging department. Digital x-ray technologiesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As the kV is reduced, scattered radiation is less penetrating. Therefore radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs can be reduced. However the skin radiation dose can increase as the kV is reduced (Allisy- Roberts and Williams, 2008). So by taking images at a higher kV should give a low contrast image which may not show the low density structures within the breast phantom. If the kV is increased it is expected there are more photons reaching the detector resulting in an over exposed image which may possibly obscure small areas of micro calcifications and low density masses. However, digital mammography can compensate to some extent for over exposure. On the other hand over exposure should be avoided to comply with the ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) principles (DoH, 2012). Filter material Filter materials in mammography are made of molybdenum or rhodium. The purpose of filters is to let through the useful photons and to absorb unwanted low and high energy photons so that they stop reaching the image detector thus contributing to the formulation of the radiographic image (Bushberg et al, 2002). With the use of filters there is an increase in the quality of x-ray beam but a reduction in the intensity (Ball and Price, 1995). Therefore filtration is necessary but photons from the low end of spectrum if they are not
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE BaBUR The foundation of the empire was laid in 1526 by ahir al-Din Mu? ammad Babur, a Chagatai Turk (so called because his ancestral homeland, the country north of the Amu Darya [Oxus River] in Central Asia, was the heritage of Chagatai, the second son of Genghis Khan). Babur was a fifth-generation descendant of Timur on the side of his father and a 14th-generation descendant of Genghis Khan. His idea of conquering India was inspired, to begin with, by the story of the exploits of Timur, who had invaded the subcontinent in 1398. We will write a custom essay sample on Foundation Course in Science and Technology or any similar topic only for you Order Now Babur inherited his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s principality in Fergana at a young age, in 1494. Soon he was literally a fugitive, in the midst of both an internecine fight among the Timurids and a struggle between them and the rising Uzbeks over the erstwhile Timurid empire in the region. In 1504 he conquered Kabul and Ghazni. In 1511 he recaptured Samarkand, only to realize that, with the formidable ? afavid dynasty in Iran and the Uzbeks in Central Asia, he should rather turn to the southeast toward India to have an empire of his own. As a Timurid, Babur had an eye on the Punjab, part of which had been TimurÃ¢â¬â¢s possession. He made several excursions in the tribal habitats there. Between 1519 and 1524Ã¢â¬âwhen he invaded Bhera, Sialkot, and LahoreÃ¢â¬âhe showed his definite intention to conquer Hindustan, where the political scene favoured his adventure. Conquest Of Hindustan Having secured the Punjab, Babur advanced toward Delhi, garnering support from many Delhi nobles. He routed two advance parties of Ibrahim LodiÃ¢â¬â¢s troops and met the sultanÃ¢â¬â¢s main army at Panipat. The Afghans fought bravely, but they had never faced new artillery, and their frontal attack was no answer to BaburÃ¢â¬â¢s superior arrangement of the battle line. BaburÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge of western and Central Asian war tactics and his brilliant leadership proved decisive in his victory. By April 1526 he was in control of Delhi and Agra and held the keys to conquer Hindustan. Babur, however, had yet to encounter any of the several Afghans who held important towns in what is now eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar and who were backed by the sultan of Bengal in the east and the Rajputs on the southern borders. The Rajputs under Rana Sanga of Mewar threatened to revive their power in northern India. Babur assigned the unconquered territories to his nobles and led an expedition himself against the rana in person. He crushed the ranaÃ¢â¬â¢s forces at Khanua, near Fatehpur Sikri (March 1527), once again by means of the skillful positioning of troops. Babur then continued his campaigns to subjugate the Rajputs of Chanderi. When Afghan risings turned him to the east, he had to fight, among others, the joint forces of the Afghans and the sultan of Bengal in 1529 at Ghagra, near Varanasi. Babur won the battles, but the expedition there too, like the one on the southern borders, was left unfinished. Developments in Central Asia and BaburÃ¢â¬â¢s failing health forced him to withdraw. He died near Lahore in December 1530. BaburÃ¢â¬â¢s Achievements BaburÃ¢â¬â¢s brief tenure in Hindustan, spent in wars and in his preoccupation with northwest and Central Asia, did not give him enough time to consolidate fully his conquests in India. Still, discernible in his efforts are the beginnings of the Mughal imperial organization and political culture. He introduced some Central Asian administrative institutions and, significantly, tried to woo the prominent local chiefs. He also established new mints in Lahore and Jaunpur and tried to ensure a safe and secure route from Agra to Kabul. He advised his son and successor, Humayun, to adopt a tolerant religious policy. How to cite Foundation Course in Science and Technology, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Introduction The United States military attack on the Middle East received widespread criticisms from all over the world. Human rights activists asserted that the United States concerted efforts on this war reflected the deep-rooted negligence of the important roles a government plays to its citizens. The slow response by the government to the Hurricane Katrina re-ignited criticisms, which is slowly becoming part of the American culture.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Who is to blame for slow Katrina response? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Who is to blame for the slow response towards the Katrina catastrophe? This paper carries out a research on the criticisms of the United States government on the war on terrorism and disaster response to test the hypothesis that, the former United States president, George Walker Bush, is to blame for the slow response to Hurricane Katrina. Research Method The resea rch will obtain relevant information from scholarly articles and electronic libraries. The study focuses on three areas viz. the opinion polls on war and disaster response by the government, the criticisms of war on terror, and criticisms of disaster response. Based on the opinion polls of the public on the war on terrorism, the research will establish whether the US people supported the government involvement in Middle East. The research will also seek to establish the public view and evaluate several arguments by the critics to the Ã¢â¬Ëwar on terrorÃ¢â¬â¢ and the disaster response. In order to dispel or justify the stated thesis, the research shall carry out a qualitative evaluation to test the thesis. Findings Criticisms of the Response to the Hurricane Katrina After the devastating Katrina Hurricane that struck the Mexican Gulf and parts of Southern United States, observers, politicians, activists, and public pointed fingers to the government for its slow response to the di saster. The research found that most of the accusations targeted Department of Homeland Security and the President Bush administration for slow response because the research established that the slow response was a result of inadequate leadership within the Department. To demonstrate the DHSÃ¢â¬â¢ negligence on this matter, the research established that according to ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s Tapper (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"More than 10,000 people died in Katrina HurricaneÃ¢â¬ (7), whereas DHS reports showed that less than 2,000 people died. The discrepancy could be a result of the DHS slow response to establish the real effect and impact of the Hurricane Katrina. Critics also blame President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s handling of the Southern United States before and after the Katrina. According to public opinion poll carried in September 2005, Ã¢â¬Å"only 38% of the American citizens supported President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s handling of the Katrina disasterÃ¢â¬ (Tapper 2005, 7). More than 60% of the United States cit izens expressed dissatisfaction by the BushÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the issue.Advertising Looking for research paper on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Bush administration had ignored the various warnings issued by scientists, politicians and largely by media. Critics attribute the BushÃ¢â¬â¢s neglect of the disaster to his concentration on the Iraqi invasion. New Orleans experienced understaffing of its military and disaster management officers, approximately by 65% hence; there was insufficient disaster response military. The research found that critics accuse the State of Louisiana for the slow response because Brown (2005) argues that, the state officials Ã¢â¬Å"frustrated the efforts of the federal government and international agencies in providing aid, security, and relief, after the Hurricane KatrinaÃ¢â¬ (60). Due to the limitations of the Posse Comitatus Act, the Federal troops could not provide di rect security to the New OrleansÃ¢â¬â¢ citizens, hence slow response. Criticisms of War on Terror by the Bush Government Most critics of the war based their arguments on the morals, economics, ethics, and issues surrounding the American military attack on Iraq and other regions in the Middle East. Legal experts viewed the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ military actions in the Middle East as the extreme violation of the international law. In addition, these experts justified that it was against the United NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ Security Council for United States to Ã¢â¬Å"invade Middle East, particularly Iraq, without cognitive evidence that the region possessed threat to the peace of the worldÃ¢â¬ (Williamson 2009, 89). The BushÃ¢â¬â¢s remarks of the perpetual war on terrorism exposed his focus on the military activities in Iraq at the expense of the needs of people of United States. As a result, the government did not prepare adequately for the breach of levees after the Hurricane Katrina d espite the perpetual warnings by the experts. Majority of the critics attributed the slow Katrina response to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on the military actions in the Arab world. Therefore, Bush was to blame for the slow response to Hurricane Katrina. The research found that the majority of public believed that the government did not involve the public in the decisions of war on terror. Critics further argued that the government neglected the citizens who opposed its actions in Iraq. The media quoted President Bush saying, Ã¢â¬Å"You are either with us or against usÃ¢â¬ (Taylor 2002, 1). By making such remarks, the president meant to engage whoever opposed his predetermined plans. Critics such as Johns A. Keaney observed that the slow response to the Hurricane Katrina was a means by the government to punish those who opposed its war on terror (Cook 2005, 13).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Who is to blame for slow Katrina response? specificall y for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With the principle of unilateralism, the United States government attacks in Iraq did not mean to achieve the goals of Ã¢â¬Ëwar on terrorÃ¢â¬â¢. In fact, it enhanced poverty and undignified livelihoods of the Black American citizens. As a result, the victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ response to the Hurricane Katrina was slow due to their incapability to move out of the disaster stricken New Orleans state. The war on terrorism created more problems to the people of the United States. Apart from enhancing terrorist attacks to the US citizens, the war on terrorism made even the local officers to neglect their roles to the citizens. Since the president himself had neglected his role to the people, the local officers imitated him. Therefore, it was President Bush to blame for the failure of quick action by the local authorities. According to Brown (2005), if the government had allocated enough funds on disaster preparedness and ma nagement, the DHS would have quickly responded to the Hurricane Katrina (58). Based on the opinion polls that the slow response to Hurricane Katrina because of the government focus on war on terrorism, this research established that majority of the people who lived in the New Orleans blamed the government for their desperate conditions; the level of poverty and poor living conditions in that state. Some linked the neglect by the government to the heavy Ã¢â¬ËinvestmentÃ¢â¬â¢ the government had made in the war on terrorism. Therefore, it was President Bush to blame for the slow response by the local authorities to the Hurricane Katrina. Opinion polls The research established that 61% of American citizens proposed that the government should reduce the spending in Iraq and invest in reconstruction of the disaster hit New Orleans (Tapper 2005, 7). The opinion polls also revealed that 57% of the citizens had no trust in the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s provision for relief services in case of terrorist attacks or occurrence of natural disasters. The polls showed that the citizens blamed everyone involved for relief problem during the Katrina disaster; 73% blamed the local government, 61% accused President Bush, 70% blamed the government agencies and 57% accused the Katrina victims.Advertising Looking for research paper on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the Iraqi war, 58% supported withdrawal of the US soldiers from the Middle East, with 77% of the democrats in support of the withdrawal while majority of the Republicans (59%) in opposition of the plan. Generally, the poll findings indicated that over 50% of American did not support the issue of terrorism and blamed the government for slow response to disaster of Hurricane Katrina. Qualitative Analysis The opinion polls bring about an important aspect of the study-the slow response to the Hurricane Katrina has direct link with the President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s war on terrorism. As depicted by the public opinions, the government had allocated many resources for the Iraqi war. The public outcry to the government for reduction of investment in terrorism evidences President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s extensive expenditure on Iraqi war. With 61% of the American citizen accusing Bush for the slow response in the Hurricane Katrina disaster, it is clear that people believed that the government had devoted all its resources for the war on terror. Basing on the criticisms concerning terrorism and disaster response, the government did show partiality in dealing with two issues that affected the lives of Americans. Conclusion In the view of qualitative analysis, President Bush is to blame for the slow response to Katrina because the local government had the upper hand to respond to the Hurricane Katrina before the federal government. On the Ã¢â¬Ëwar on terrorÃ¢â¬â¢ critics argued that, the victims and the citizens should blame the president for investing too much to the extent of neglecting crucial needs of the Americans. Moreover, the critics argue that the government was too busy in the Iraqi war such that it disregarded the action against the natural disasters. In addition, the government reduction in financing of the disasters such as Hurricane Katrina frustrated the efforts of the local authorities to respond effectively to the disasters. Reference List Brown, Michael D. 2005. H urricane Katrina: the first seven days of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s worst naturalÃ Disaster. US: Lulu Publishers Cook, Robin S. 2005. The struggle against terrorism cannot be won by military means. London:Ã The Guardian, July 8. Holmes, Stephen M. 2006. The Torture Debate in America. Greenberg: Cambridge University Press. Kellner, Douglas. 2003. From 9/11 to terror war: the dangers of the Bush legacy. New York: Rawman Littlefield. Meggle, Georg. 2005. Ethics of terrorism counter-terrorism. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag Publishers Peterson, Scott L. 2004. Why the U.S. granted Ã¢â¬ËprotectedÃ¢â¬â¢ status to Iranian terrorists. TheÃ Christian Science Monitor 10, (June/July): 130-145. Piszkiewicz, Dennis. 2003. TerrorismÃ¢â¬â¢s war with America: a history. US: Greenwood Publishing Group Tapper, Jake. 2005. Amid Katrina Chaos, Congressman Used National Guard to Visit Home and opinion polls. ABC News. September 13. Taylor, Martin S. 2002.With us or against us? Mideast is not that simple. S t. Petersburg Times, May 9. Williamson, Myra. 2009. Terrorism, war and international law: the legality of the use of force against Afghanistan in 2001. US: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. This research paper on Who is to blame for slow Katrina response? was written and submitted by user Ruth Eaton to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Seven Writing Tips from Stephen King Seven Writing Tips from Stephen King Seven Writing Tips from Stephen King By Daniel Scocco You probably know Stephen King from his novels and fiction books. While King might not be as renowned as some other contemporary writers, he does know how to sell books. The Positivity Blog recently published an article with Seven writing tips coming from Stephen Kings On Writing. Here is a quotation from point four: King has an honest voice in his fiction and in his memoir. He tells it like it is and makes us relate to him and his characters. Since KingÃ ´s fiction often is of an odd kind with strange plots that seldom happen to normal people I think one of his strengths as a writer is being able to write relatable content anyway. One of the keys to doing that is to have an honest voice and honest characters with both bad and good sides to them. People we can relate to with all of their faults, passions, fears, weaknesses and good moments. KingÃ ´s characters seem human. That creates a strong connection to the reader who starts caring about the characters. Another key to being honest and relatable is keeping a conversational style. Keeping it simple and using language that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t unnecessarily complicated. Using the words that first come to mind. If you are wondering, the seven writing tips are: Get to the point Write a draft. Then let it rest Cut down your text Be relatable and honest DonÃ ´t care too much what others may think Read a lot Write a lot Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Idioms About NumbersTime Words: Era, Epoch, and EonDozen: Singular or Plural?
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Why the Causes of Terrorism Are so Hard to Identify The causes of terrorism seem almost impossible for anyone to define. Heres why: they change over time. Listen to terrorists in different periods and youll hear different explanations. Then, listen to scholars who explain terrorism. Their ideas change over time too, as new trends in academic thinking take hold. Many writers begin statements about the causes of terrorism as if terrorism were a scientific phenomenon whose characteristics are fixed for all time, like the causes of a disease, or the causes of rock formations. Terrorism isnt a natural phenomenon though. It is the name given by people about other peoples actions in the social world. Both terrorists and terrorisms explainers are influenced by dominant trends in political and scholarly thought. Terrorists- people who threaten or use violence against civilians with the hope of changing the status quo- perceive the status quo in ways that accord with the era they live in. People who explain terrorism are also influenced by prominent trends in their professions. These trends change over time. Viewing Trends in Terrorism Will Help Solve It Viewing terrorism as the extreme edge of mainstream trends helps us understand, and thus seek solutions, to it. When we view terrorists as evil or beyond explanation, we are inaccurate and unhelpful. We cannot solve an evil. We can only live fearfully in its shadow. Even if it is uncomfortable to think of people who do terrible things to innocent people as part of our same world, I believe it is important to try. You will see in the list below that people who have chosen terrorism in the last century have been influenced by the same broad trends that we all have. The difference is, they chose violence as a response. 1920s - 1930s: Socialism In the early 20th century, terrorists justified violence in the name of anarchism, socialism, and communism. Socialism was becoming a dominant way for many people to explain the political and economic injustice they saw developing in capitalist societies, and for defining a solution. Millions of people expressed their commitment to a socialist future without violence, but a small number of people in the world thought violence was necessary. 1950s - 1980s: Nationalism In the 1950s through 1980s, terrorist violence tended to have a nationalist component. Terrorist violence in these years reflected the post-World War II trend in which previously suppressed populations committed violence against states that had not given them a voice in the political process. Algerian terrorism against French rule; Basque violence against the Spanish state; Kurdish actions against Turkey; the Black Panthers and Puerto Rican militants in the United States all sought a version of independence from oppressive rule. Scholars in this period began seeking to understand terrorism in psychological terms. They wanted to understand what motivated individual terrorists. This related to the rise of psychology and psychiatry in other related realms, such as criminal justice. The 1980s - Today: Religious Justifications In the 1980s and 1990s, terrorism began to appear in the repertoire of right-wing, neo-Nazi or neo-fascist, racist groups. Like the terrorist actors that preceded them, these violent groups reflected the extreme edge of a broader and not-necessarily-violent backlash against developments during the civil rights era. White, Western European or American men, in particular, grew fearful of a world beginning to grant recognition, political rights, economic franchise and freedom of movement (in the form of immigration) to ethnic minorities and women, who might seem to be taking their jobs and position. In Europe and the United States, as well as elsewhere, the 1980s represented a time when the welfare state had expanded in the United States and Europe, the agitation of the civil rights movement had produced results, and globalization, in the form of multi-national corporations, had gotten underway, producing economic dislocation among many who depended on manufacturing for a living. Timothy McVeighs bombing of the Oklahoma City Federal Building, the most lethal terrorist attack in the U.S. until the 9/11 attacks, exemplified this trend. In the Middle East, a similar swing toward conservatism was taking hold in the 1980s and 1990s, although it had a different face than it did in Western democracies. The secular, socialist framework that had been dominant the world over- -from Cuba to Chicago to Cairo-- faded after the 1967 Arab-Israeli war and the death in 1970 of Egyptian President Gamal Abd-Al Nasser. The failure in the 1967 war was a big blow- it disillusioned Arabs about the entire era of Arab socialism. Economic dislocations because of the Gulf War in the 1990s caused many Palestinian, Egyptian and other men working in the Persian Gulf to lose their jobs. When they returned home, they found women had assumed their roles in households and jobs. Religious conservatism, including the idea that women should be modest and not work, took hold in this atmosphere. In this way, both West and East saw a rise in fundamentalism in the 1990s. Terrorism scholars began to notice this rise in religious language and sensibility in terrorism as well. The Japanese Aum Shinrikyo, Islamic Jihad in Egypt, and groups such as the Army of God in the United States were willing to use religion to justify violence. Religion is the primary way that terrorism is explained today. Future: Environment New terrorism forms and new explanations are underway, however. Special interest terrorism is used to describe people and groups who commit violence on behalf of a very specific cause. These are often environmental in nature. Some predict the rise of green terrorism in Europeviolent sabotage on behalf of environmental policy.Ã Animal rightsÃ activists have also revealed a fringe violent edge. Just as in earlier eras, these forms of violence mimic the dominant concerns of our time across the political spectrum.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Understanding Luther - Essay Example Understanding Luther Luther tried also to point that James considered the perfect law as a way to liberate men from bondages (James 1:25), However, Luther believed that Paul considered the law as the law of slavery, wrath, death and sin. In this ground, Luther was confident in his stand that James opposed Paul and the scriptures and whatever the apostles were able to accomplish by stimulating people to love. It is therefore evident that Luther was comparing both James and PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s epistle on the ground of faith and work. His stand was evident on PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s writing and he used this as his basis to consider JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ stand between faith and work as completely contradictory. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s teaching about works and faith in Galatians PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings about works and faith in Galatians are evident. His very example was the faith of Abraham which was considered righteousness before God. He would offer his son, by believing in God and that certain faith moved the hands of God on him. In this e xample, Paul pointed out that Abraham had faith and because of that, he would be willing to offer his son, as God commanded him. Paul depicted that real faith certainly would result to action that would justify it, just like what Abraham did. In the same way, Paul pointed out that it is only by faith we are justified in Christ. ... it is an act considered by Paul which results to having its fruit such as love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control (Galatians 5:22). Therefore, Paul was clear about its message that having faith in Jesus is about living in righteousness guided by the Spirit. Thus, there is an act involved in here to be initiated by man, combining the real essence and power of both faith and work. JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ teaching about works and faith in James James was also bold and clear about his stand on faith and works. Ã¢â¬ËYou foolish man, do you want evidence that faith without deeds is useless (dead)?Ã¢â¬â¢ (James 2:20). James wanted to emphasize that faith is made complete by what the person does (James 2:22). Abraham was made righteous and was remarkably remembered of his faith because of his ability to obey God to the fullest even if it would mean the life of his dear son. James just wanted to emphasize that a genuine faith would result to doing great things, no matter how hard they might be for as long as it is pleasing before God and in accordance to His will. Evaluating Luther Luther was exactly missing the real point of what righteousness is all about. He did not consider the fact that faith and works are interrelated which was elaborately shown by the epistles of Paul and James. However, compared to Paul, James was very bold in saying that genuine faith results to works that are acceptable and pleasing to God. Luther had a point believing that works cannot justify a person before God. It is absolutely true because the scripture is clear about it. Ã¢â¬ËFor it is by grace you have been saved, through faith Ã¢â¬â and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God Ã¢â¬â not by works, so that no one can boast (Ephesians 2:8-9). However, Luther is